Compression force testing is used to determine how a product or material will behave when it is compressed, squashed, crushed or flattened. This is done by measuring fundamental parameters that help to determine the specimen behavior under compressive load.
Compression force testing is performed to:
- Assess the strength of components and assemblies such as automotive and aeronautical control switches, compression springs, bellows, keypads, package seals, helical springs, PET containers, PVC / ABS pipes, solenoids, etc.
- Characterise the compressive properties of materials such as foam, metal, PET, plastics, rubber, etc.
- Assess the performance of products, as in the actuation force to operate a syringe or the load-displacement characteristics of a tennis ball.
Other specific types of test would include:
- Compressive Burst
- Compressive shear
- Flexural /Bending Test
- Penetration/Puncture resistance
- Top load /Axial force/ column crush
Compression Force Testing:
Compression tests help to determine a material’s behavior under the application of crushing loads. These tests are typically conducted by applying compressive force to a test specimen (that could be cuboid or cylindrical in shape) using platens or specialized fixtures via a universal testing machine.
During the test, various properties of the material can be calculated and plotted, such as Stress – Strain Diagram. This would help to determine qualities such as Elastic limit, Proportional limit, Yield point, Yield strength and compressive strength.
Compression tests helps to assure the quality and performance of finished products such as actuation force of a syringe plunger, firmness of a tennis ball, push-out strength of a tablet from a blister pack and many more.
A compressive burst test is a destructive test and performed to determine the pressure overload characteristics of pressure bearing parts. These tests are usually performed with a fluid.
This test is often performed as a pre-production test to meet safety and quality standards. To verify the reliability of products it is advisable to determine the difference between the maximum working pressure and the pressure when the product fails absolutely (burst pressure).
The integrity of a fluid or gas-filled container can be tested in terms of its propensity to burst at a given value of pressure.
This could involve a failure in the material by splitting, or the seal/seam could give way or even the closure can break loose. Compression Force Testing
Compression burst test is conducted
- To determine the maximum burst pressure
- To determine the safety factor specified in applicable standards
- To determine the mode of failure
- To confirm the designing margin of the product
There are various ways to conduct a compression test such as involving an inflationary burst created by internal pressure; this could include sensitive gaseous leak detection. However, a simple and pragmatic approach involves compressing a filled container and using a probe with a standard radius or flat tip to measure the force to burst it. Compression Force Testing
Compressive Shear Test:
- 2-point cantilever bend, where one end of the material is fixed and load is applied at a defined point along its length
- 3-point bend, where the material is placed horizontally across 2 supports and load is applied centrally by a single anvil
- 4-point bend where the material is placed horizontally across 2 supports and load is applied by two anvils having a defined span
- Tensile strength of a known material.
- Resistance of fibers to breaking or being forced apart by a foreign object.
Top Load/Axial Force/Column Crush:
APPLICATIONS OF COMPRESSION TESTING IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES:
Compression testing is used to guarantee the quality of components, materials and finished products within a wide range industry. Few of the applications listed below
- Aerospace and Automotive Industry
Applications of compression force testing in the aerospace and automotive industry include:
- Actuation tests on pedals, switches and solenoids
- Spring testing
- Compression tests on car seat safety harnesses
- Construction Industry
Applications of compression force testing in the construction industry include:
- Measuring the flexural strength of sheet construction materials, insulation boards and roofing panels
- Penetration tests on plasterboard, pipes etc.,
- Cosmetics Industry
Applications of compression force testing in the cosmetics industry include:
- Actuation force testing of sprays and dispensing pumps
- Break strength testing of lipsticks, lip balms, lip and eye liners
- Compaction strength of powder compacts and eye shadows
- Testing the force to dispense creams and lotions from containers and sachets
- Electrical and Electronic Industry
Applications of compression force testing in the electrical and electronic industry include:
- Actuation force testing of push buttons and switches
- Compression testing of LCD screens and keypads
- Medical Device Industry
Applications of compression force testing in the medical device industry include:
- 3-point bend testing of needles
- Actuation force testing of metered dose inhalers and pen injectors
- Sharpness, insertion and penetration force testing of needles and scalpel blades
- Syringe plunger actuation and “travel” force assessment
- Packaging Industry
Applications of compression force testing in the packaging industry include:
- Compressive strength testing of cardboard packaging
- Dispensing pump actuation force
- Top-load testing of:
- Cardboard and plastic containers
- PET bottles
- Paper and Board Industry
Application of compression testing in the paper and board industry include:
- Compressive strength testing of cardboard
- Pharmaceuticals Industry
Applications of compression testing in the pharmaceuticals industry include:
- Gel strength and gel rupture testing
- “Press-out” force of blister packs
- Compression testing of tablets and capsules to measure characteristics:
- Plastics, Rubber and Elastomers Industry
Application of compression testing in the plastics, rubber and elastomers industry include:
- 3-point bend testing to identify flexural properties of plastics
SUSHMA SOLUTION FOR COMPRESSION FORCE TESTING:
- Our single/dual column force testing systems are versatile & customizable for any application or budget.
- We offer a range of Manual, Motorized & Computer controlled force testing systems of 500N to 100kN capacities.
- We assist in configuring it for ideal compression and Tension force testing
- Ideal for product testing, in quality control labs, R&D facilities, production line, or as per your testing environment requirements.