Sensors and transducers serve to collect data and then share this information with a whole network of connected devices. This data collected makes it possible for devices to function autonomously and makes the whole ecosystem smarter.
Sensors are designed to detect any change in properties such as temperature, pressure, or radiation, while some sense motion or proximity.
A wide range of sensors, detectors, and transducers are available to detect physical properties such as torque, fire, metals, leaks, levels, gases and chemicals.
There are many types of sensors and transducers available both analogue and digital. Devices that perform input functions are sensors because it can perceive a physical change in response to some stimulation such as heat or force and coverts that to an electrical signal.
The type of input / output transducer being used depends on the type of signal or process being sensed or controlled, therefore we can define a sensor / a transducer as devices that convert physical quantity into some other form.
A sensor can be defined as a device, module, machine, or subsystem used to detect events or changes in its environment and send that information for processing.
To define a sensor in a simple manner, a sensor converts stimuli such as heat, light, sound and motion into electrical signals.
A sensor is always used with tandem with other electronics and is used to detect & measure physical quantity (light, sound, area), which is then converted into readable format such as voltage, capacitance, inductance or ohmic resistance.
The accuracy of sensors depends on their calibration, if calibrated as per requirement they are highly accurate devices.
The data measured by sensors can be utilized to:
- Operate a system efficiently.
- Monitor operations for any abnormalities.
- Control operations.
- Utilize resources efficiently.
- Inculcate design changes to improve performance.
- Enhance product portfolio.
A transducer is a device that converts energy or a signal from one form to another. All transducers are sensors but all sensors are not transducers.
The simplest manner to fathom the working of a transducer is to liken it to a speaker and a microphone built into a single unit. A transducer receives a sequence of high voltage electrical pulses and converts these pulses into sound or waves.
Working of a Transducer
There are two different types of transducers depending on whether or not they require an external power source. These are named as active or passive transducers.
An active transducer does not require any power source in order to function. These transducers work on the energy conversion principle, wherein they produce an electrical signal that is proportional to the input.
A thermocouple is an active transducer.
Passive transducers are such that they need an external power source to function. Their output signal is generated in the form of variations in resistance, capacitance, or other electrical parameters. Which is then converted to voltage signal or equivalent current.
A torque transducer is a passive transducer as it varies the voltage of the electrical output from the cell when torque is applied. Torque transducers are used to measure the drive torque and breaking torque on any vehicle.
Types of Transducers
Transducers can be classified by their principle of operation. There several types such as chemical transducers, piezoelectric transducers, and mutual induction transducers.
We can also classify transducers as electromagnetic transducers, Hall Effect transducers, and photoconductors. Photovoltaic transducers are generally known as solar cells.
There are different classifications for transducers based on the quantity to be measured. These can be classified as displacement transducers, temperature transducers, flow transducers, and pressure transducers.
How To Make A Transducer
The main component of a depth transducer is a piezoceramic element. This part is responseble for the conversion of electrical pulses into sound waves, and when the echoes return, the piezoceramic element converts the sound waves back into electrical energy.
A transducer can contain an element or a series of elements that are linked together called as an array.
Below find the 6 separate component of a transducer:
• Piezoceramic element / an array of elements
• Acoustic window
• Encapsulating material
• Sound absorbing material
Most of the Force transducers and Torque transducers are manufactured using strain gauges to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy using Wheatstone’s bridge principle.
Sushma Industries manufactures Torque / Force transducers & Custom Pressure Sensors or OEM Pressure sensors for a variety of applications.
Sushma Loadcells / Force Sensors are of various types –
1) Compression Sensors,
2) Tension Sensors,
3) Compression & Tension or Universal Sensors.
4) Multi-Axis Force Sensors.
Sushma Torque Sensors are as follows
1) Reaction Torque Sensors or Non-Rotating Torque Sensors
2) Rotary Torque Sensors
3) Multi-Axis and Multi-Moment Torque Sensors
Sushma Industries are capable of producing Custom or OEM Sensors for Force/Torque/Pressure parameters as per customer requirement.